Jesus is brought in front of Annas for the first of six trials. This trial was illegal because it was before daylight.
Annas was the immediately previous High Priest, the Father–in–law of Caiaphas who was the current the High Priest.
Annas full name was Annas Ben Seth, and he ruled as high Priest from AD6–AD15.
The Jewish Law system was designed to give the accused a fair trial but in this case it was total abused.
Jesus Taken to Annas — 1st trial
12 Then the detachment of soldiers with its commander and the
Jewish officials arrested Jesus.
They bound him 13 and brought him first to
Annas, who was the father–in–law of Caiaphas, the high priest that year.
14 Caiaphas was the one who had advised the
Jews that it would be good if one man died for the people.
Israel was conquered, and then occupied by the Roman Empire. A consequence was that the authority of the local Jewish courts was limited. The Romans suspended the authority of the Sanhedrin – the Jewish courts – to pass and commission death sentences. They could only make a request for a death sentence, but it could not be actioned until confirmed by the Roman authorities, who performed the actual execution.