Background Information – Joshua and Judges of Israel

– Also see Resources and Timeline of the Judges.
Look also at some of the material that was used in preparing 17 Judges or Rulers of Israel.

Date and place: Joshua’s part of the book was perhaps written at Gilgal in Canaan.

The events transpired from 1646BC-1616BC. How and by whom the postscript. (Judges 24:29-33) was written is not known; but the Jewish tradition says that vs. 29-32 of the last chapter were added by Eleazar and v 33 was added by Phineas.

Author: Joshua, except for the postscript and a few other verses. He was of the Tribe of Ephraim (Numbers 14:8, 16), and became the leader of Israel after Moses (1:9-14; 24:13; Numbers 27:18-23; Dt. 1:38; 3:21,28; 31:3-23; 34:9).
He is mentioned in the book of Joshua 171 times as the 22nd great leader of Israel. The name Joshua is found 216 times throughout Scripture.
In the Septuagint the name is Jesus, which is retained in the Greek New Testament (Acts 7:45; Hebrews 4:8). Joshua is also called Jehoshua and Oshea (Numbers 13:8,16) and Jehoshuah (1 Chr. 7:27). He was a slave in Egypt.

At his death he was 110 years old, the same age as Joseph was when he died (24:29), which made Israel’s 2nd leader about 40 years old at the time of the exodus from Egypt. See Joshua in Index.

Proof of authorship: in every generation of Israel there were men called scribes and recorders who kept up the national records of current events (Ex. 17:14; 37:27; Numbers 5:23; 17:2-3; Dt. 17:18; Josh. 10:13; Judg. 5:14; 2 Sam. 1:18; 8:16-17; 20:24-25; 1 Ki. 4:3; 2 Ki. 12:10; 18:18; 19:2; etc.).

There were also many prophets who wrote books of records of national events (Josh. 24:26; 1 Sam. 10:25; 1 Kings 11:41; 14:19, 29; 15:7, 23, 31; 16:5, 14, 20, 27; 23:39, 45; 2 Ki. 1;18; 8:23; 10:34; 12:19; 13:8, 12; 14:6, 15, 18, 28; 15:6, 11, 15, 21, 26, 31, 36; 16:19; 20:20; 21:17; 22:13; 23:3, 21, 24, 28; 24:5; 1 Chr. 9:1; 29:29; 2 Chr. 9:29; 12:15; 13:22; 16:11; 17:9; 20:24; 25:26; 27:7; 28:26; 33:18-19; 35:27; 36:8).

Joshua no doubt wrote all of the book bearing his name except the postscript (24:29-33); the story in 15:16-19 of Othniel (the first judge of Israel after Joshua) getting a wife through conquest (Judg. 1:1,10-15); and the story of Dan conquering Leshem or Laish (19:47) which was not actually accomplished until the death of Joshua (Judg. 18). Apart from these exceptions – records that could have been added by Eleazar, Phineas, Samuel, or any other prophet, scribe, or recorder in Israel – we conclude that Joshua was the author. This seems clear from 24:26. At least, many references in the book Indicate that the events of Joshua were written by an eye-witness of them (1:10-18; 2:1; 3:1-17).

The book deals with the consummation of the redemption of Israel out of Egypt, for redemption has two parts – out of and into (Dt. 6:23). It records the fulfillment of the prophecies of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Moses regarding the land of promise being given to Israel; and the conquest and division of this land to them. Joshua may be divided into two equal parts of 12 chapter each: 1-12 the conquest; 13-24 the division of the land among the tribes, with 1:1-9 forming the introduction and 24:29-33 the conclusion.

The inspiration of the book is confirmed by several quotations in the N.T. Cp. 1:5 with Hebrews 13:5; 2:1-24 with James 2:25; 6:20 with Heb. 11:30; 6:23 with Heb 11:31; 14:1-2 with Acts 13:19; and 24:32 with Acts 7:16 and Heb. 11:22.


6th book of the Bible; 24 chapters; 658 verses; 18,858 words; 624 verses of history; 42 verses of fulfilled prophecy; no unfulfilled prophecy; 21 questions; 14 Messages from God (1:1; 3:7; 4:1,15; 5:2,14; 6:2; 7:10; 9:1,18; 10:8; 11:6; 13;1;20:1).
98 commands; 44 predictions and 15 promises.


Date and place: written in Palestine about 1126 B.C.

Author: from all indications Samuel was the author, Jewish tradition assigns authorship to him; or, the book may have been written by Isaiah (2 Chr. 32:32).

Proof of authorship: facts regarding events of the book were perhaps written by the men whose exploits are recorded, or by some scribe in the tribe to which each judge belonged, then afterward collected and put in the present form when the nation became welded together under a king. From the book itself, it is clear that it was written after Israel had kings, for twice the author states he was writing about events and things happening in the days before there was a king in Israel (19:1;21:25).

The book further reveals that it was written before the time of David, for the tabernacle was at Shiloh where it was set in the days of Joshua (18:31;21:12,19-21). It remained there until the 40th year of Eli when it was destroyed (1 Sam. 4). It was heard of no more until David was made a king and he brought the tabernacle to Jerusalem (2 Sam. 6:1 Chr. 21:29; 2 Chr. 1:3). Samuel is the most likely person to have collected all the records of the judges and compile them into one book, in view of these facts.

Theme: the book is a record of Israel’s failure during the rule of the judges. It records 9 apostasies, 7 servitudes, 14 judges and their exploits and 5 civil wars. Eli and Samuel, the 15th and 16th judges, are to be found in 1 Samuel, as are Samuel’s two sons, the 17thand 18th Judges, The events of Judges cover at least 440 years.

Statistics: 7th book of the Bible; 21 chapters; 618 verses; 18,976 words; 585 verses of history; 33 verses of fulfilled prophecy; 92 questions; 23 messages from God (1:2; 2:1,20:4:6; 6:8, 12,16,20,23, 25; 7:2, 4, 7, 9; 10:11; 13:3, 11,13,16,18; 20:18,23,28); 71 commands; 26 predictions; and 5 promises.

Get info where Red Sea crossing was and where is Mt Sinai.
Moses index

Proof of authorship
note: Ex 17:14
See Joshua in index
Isaiah note 2 Chr 32:32
Judges covers at least 440 years

17 JUDGES or Rulers of Israel

Timelines:- the Judges
covers Joshua – Judges – and to the death of King Saul
Books covered – Joshua – Conquest of Canaan 1405BC-1380BC
Judges – Judges Cycles 1380BC-1043BC
Ruth – Love Story set in Bethlehem of Ephrathah 1150BC-1100BC.
1 Samuel 31:13,2 Samuel 1:1-27, 1 Chr 1-10,2 Chr 1-10

J2001. Moses

J2002. Caleb

J2004. Joshua.

SOK 365(160) The Lord has given a land of good things

J2006. Spy sent by Joshua to spy out Jericho before the battle of Jericho

J2007 2 Spies


J2008. Battle of Jericho. Jericho means: Moor city – Break down regions Practice.

J2016. Rahab Later married Salom a cousin of Caleb both of the tribe of Judah. 1404BC Scarlet cord – in Jesus’ family tree she was a non-Jew

J2022. Elders 1390-1381

J2026. The Covenant renewed at Shechem Joshua 24:1-27

J2032. Joshua died age 110. Joshua 24::28-33

J2082. Israel Fights the Remaining Canaanites Judges 1:1-36

J2086. The Angel of the Lord at Bokim Judges 2:1-5

J2092. Disobedience and Defeat Judges 2:6-23

J2096. Judges 3:1-6

J2102. Judges 3:6

Other slides in this module: